Uganda, famously known as the Pearl of Africa, is one of Africa’s richest countries for biodiversity, ranking eighth of the 54 countries on the continent (Mongabay, 2016). The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan II (2015-2025), puts Uganda’s species of flora and fauna at over 18,783. The number of mammals stands at 380, birds – 1,016 (10% of the world’s total),

fish – over 600, amphibians – 98, reptiles – 150, butterflies – 1,242 and higher plants – 5,000 . Although invertebrate fauna is less well-known, already some 1,300 species of butterflies and 260 dragonfly species have been recorded (Plumptre et al. 2018).

From the scenic shores of Uganda’s many great lakes, to the lush forests and savannas of the Albertine Rift, the mountains, and the banks of several rivers including the mighty Nile River, you will find Uganda’s biodiversity. These habitats are not only of great conservation value, but also provide a firm base for the nation’s economically important tourism, agriculture, water, and forestry. However, over the years there has been a rising global concern about the increasing loss of Uganda’s biodiversity, which in turn has affected livelihoods and business investments in the country.


Biodiversity conventionally refers to the different forms of life on earth, and it is usually determined at genetic, species and ecosystem levels. Endowed with abundant wildlife and breath-taking landscapes, Uganda is one of the most beautiful countries on the planet.